When there is a display value for View's column as formula, then if its Programmatic name matches exactly the name of other Field in the document, it will alter the formula value to field value instead.
Use case example:
You have View column title as - Full Name
The formula value for this column: FirstName + " ~ " + LastName
And its Programmatic name is CompleteName
Lets say there are other Field names of document or a Form
Lets say you have an agent that simply adds another new Field name and Field value in the selected document.
There's a conflict if the existing or added Field name is exactly the same with Programmatic column name. It will alter the column's formula.
Lets say previous formula display for View column Full Name is "John ~ Doe"
Added or existing Field name value is "a.n.o.n.y.m.o.u.s"
After refresh the document, the value for column Full Name is now "a.n.o.n.y.m.o.u.s" that previously "John ~ Doe"
The programmatic name of the column is useful if the Programmer wants to refer to the column by name and not by number. If there is a conflict, it will not retrieve a correct value.
Additionally, according to the engineering, as of right now it's working as designed and also a software limitation.
Have you opened a support ticket for this problem? If yes, can you please provide the ticket number for reference?